According to some glottochronological speculations, the Eastern Baltic languages cut up from the Western Baltic ones between AD four hundred and 600. The Greek geographer Ptolemy had already written of two Baltic tribe/nations by name, the Galindai and Sudinoi (Γαλίνδαι, Σουδινοί) within the 2nd century AD. The differentiation between Lithuanian and Latvian started after 800; for an extended interval, they might be thought of dialects of a single language.

On 31 August 1993 the last models of the Soviet Army left the territory of Lithuania. On 1 May 2004, it grew to become a fully-fledged member of the European Union, and a member of the Schengen Agreement on 21 December 2007.

Lithuania’s climate, which ranges between maritime and continental, is comparatively mild. Average temperatures on the coast are −2.5 °C (27.5 °F) in January and 16 °C (61 °F) in July. In Vilnius the common temperatures are −6 °C (21 °F) in January and 17 °C (sixty three °F) in July. During the summer season, 20 °C (sixty eight °F) is common in the course of the day whereas 14 °C (57 °F) is widespread at night; prior to now, temperatures have reached as excessive as 30 or 35 °C (86 or ninety five °F). Winter extremes are −34 °C (−29 °F) in coastal areas and −forty three °C (−forty five °F) within the east of Lithuania.

During the Tsarist annexation of Lithuania in the nineteenth century, the Lithuanian press ban was implemented, which led to the formation of the Knygnešiai (Book smugglers) motion. This motion is regarded as the very reason the Lithuanian language and literature survived until right now. seventeenth century Lithuanian students additionally wrote in Latin – Kazimieras Kojelavičius-Vijūkas, Žygimantas Liauksminas are recognized for his or her Latin writings in theology, rhetorics and music.

A century later, Polish was generally used even by the strange Lithuanian the Aristocracy. Following the Union of Lublin, Polonization more and more affected all features of Lithuanian public life, however it took well over a century for the method to be completed.

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Kęstutis’ two raids towards Teutonic possessions in 1382 brought back the tradition of his past exploits, however Jogaila retook Vilnius throughout his uncle’s absence. The warfare with the Teutonic Order continued from 1345, and in 1348, the Knights defeated the Lithuanians at the Battle of Strėva. Kęstutis requested King Casimir of Poland to mediate with the pope in hopes of converting Lithuania to Christianity, however the outcome was unfavorable, and Poland took from Lithuania in 1349 the Halych area and a few Ruthenian lands further north. Lithuania’s situation improved from 1350, when Algirdas fashioned an alliance with the Principality of Tver. Halych was ceded by Lithuania, which introduced peace with Poland in 1352.

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Extreme or determined poverty isn’t common in Lithuania, less than one p.c of the inhabitants lives on less lithuanian woman than one greenback a day. Some think the thaw in relations between Warsaw and Moscow has sparked mischief-making.

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Gediminas expanded Lithuania’s international connections by conducting correspondence with Pope John XXII as well as with rulers and other centers of power in Western Europe, and he invited German colonists to settle in Lithuania. Responding to Gediminas’ complaints about the aggression from the Teutonic Order, the pope compelled the Knights to look at a four-yr peace with Lithuania in 1324–1327. Opportunities for the Christianization of Lithuania had been investigated by the pope’s legates, however they met with no success.


Smetona’s celebration, the Lithuanian Nationalist Union, steadily grew in size and importance. He adopted the title “tautos vadas” (leader of the nation) and slowly started building a cult of character. Many outstanding political figures married into Smetona’s household (for instance, Juozas Tūbelis and Stasys Raštikis).

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Lithuanian has the richest participle system of all Indo-European languages, having participles derived from all simple tenses with distinct energetic and passive varieties, and two gerund forms. On the opposite hand, the Lithuanian verbal morphology retains a variety of archaic features absent from most modern Indo-European languages (but shared with Latvian). This includes the artificial formation of the future tense with the assistance of the -s- suffix; three principal verbal varieties with the present tense stem employing the -n- and -st- infixes. 2,955,200 people in Lithuania (including 3,460 Tatars), or about 86% of the 2015 inhabitants, are native Lithuanian audio system; most Lithuanian inhabitants of different nationalities additionally communicate Lithuanian to some extent. The whole worldwide Lithuanian-speaking inhabitants is about 3,200,000.

By 1800, over 2 million of the Uniates had become Orthodox, and one other 1.6 million by 1839. Third Grand Duchy’s Statute (1588 legal code) was nonetheless written within the Ruthenian language. Lithuanian coat of arms, “the Chase”, is proven on the title web page.